Family Planning Problems in Countries of North Africa
Family planning programs are one of the most important components of population policy. The article examines the determining and accompanying factors of reproductive behavior in the recent historical retrospective of the North African region, starting from the middle of the 20th century.
Since the second half of the last century, families in the Arab world have been undergoing transformation as new models of family and marriage relations appear in the result of the gradual acceleration of socio-economic development. From the 1970s, more and more governments in the region began to pursue a demographic policy against uncontrolled population growth, which is a powerful brake on economic dynamics. The main influence on the reduction in the birth rate was exerted by five factors – the level of the healthcare system, economic, social, political, and cultural aspects.
The reduction in the birth rate can begin only after a decrease in mortality, primarily infant and child. The use of contraceptives, as a method of deliberate birth control, is also an important component.
The processes of urbanization and migration are considered significant factors influencing fertility rates. Raising the age of marriage, increasing life expectancy have an impact on reducing the size of the family. In any case, the decline in the birth rate entails the aging of the population. The richer the country, the higher the percentage of older people is in its population. According to experts, the governments should take on the task of providing families and aging generation with social security, improving the provision of pensions and benefits, especially for women, and actively promoting the expansion of women’s education and emancipation, which would be beneficial for the development of society and the state.
North African region, demographic policy, reproductive behavior, population aging, intergenerational support
1. Ashurst H., Balkaran S., Casterline J.B. Socio-economic differentials in recent fertility. Comparative Studies. International Statistical Institute. 1984. № 42. 61 p.
2. Bongaarts J. Household Size and Composition in the Developing World New York, Population Council. Report № 44. 2001.
3. Chesnais J.C. La transition démographique: étapes, formes, implication économique. Etude de series temporelles (1720–1984) relative à 67 pays. Population. 1986. Vol. 41. № 6., рp. 1059–1070.
4. Courbage Y. Economic and political issues of fertility transition in the Arab World – Answers and open questions. Population and Environment. 1999. Vol. 20., рp. 358–380, р. 253; Fargue P. La transition de la fécondité dans les pays arabes. Cahiers de la Mediterranée. 1990. Vol. 40, рp. 1–39; Gautier A. Les politiques de planification familiale dans les pays en développement: du malthusianisme au féminisme? Lien social et Politiques. 2002. Spring. № 47, рp. 67–81.
5. Crane K., Simon S., Martini J. Future challenges for the Arab World: The implications of demographic and economic trends. RAND Corporation. 2011. https://www.rand.org/pubs/ technical_reports/TR912.htm; Fargues P. La baisse de la fécondité arabe. Population. 1988. Vol. 43. № 6, рp. 975–1004. https://doi.org/10.2307/1533203 (accessed 15.01.2022)
6. Drioui Ch., El Bidaoui B., Bakass F. Diffusion Test of Fertility Decline in Arab Countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region. Journal of Population and Social Studies. 2022. Vol. 30. Pp. 562–590. http://doi.org/10.25133/JPSSv302022.32 (accessed 09.02.2022)
7. Eberstadt N., Shah A. Fertility decline in the Muslim World, 1975–2005: A veritable sea-change, still curiously unnoticed. H.Groth & A. Sousa-Poza (editors). Population Dynamic in Muslim Coutries. Рp. 11–27. Berlin, Springer. 2012. 374 p. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27881-5_2 (accessed 09.02.2022)
8. Fargues P. Un siècle de transition démographique en Afrique mediterranéenne 1885–1985. Population. 1986. Vol. 41. № 2, рp. 205–232. https://doi.org/10.2307/1533203 (accessed 29.12. 2021)
9. Gastineau B., Sandron F. La politique de la planification familiale en Tunisie (1964–2000). P.: CEPED. 2000. 47 p. P. 26; Roudi-Fahimi F. et al. Iran’s Family Planning Program: Responding to a Nation’s Needs. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. 2002.
10. Global demographic trends. Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Economic and Social Council. 2018.
11. Goldscheider F., Bernhardt E., Lappedärg T. The gender revolution: a framework for understanding changing family and demographic behavior. Population and Development Review. 2015. Vol. 41. № 2, рp. 207–239.
12. Gu D., Andreev K., Dupré M. Major Trends in Population Growth Around the World. China CDC Weekly. 2021. July 9. № 28, рp. 604–613.
13. Hamanaka Sh. Demographic change and its social and political implications in the Middle East. Asian Journal of Comparative Politics. March 2017. Vol. 2. № 1, рp. 70–86.
14. ILO. Global Employment Trends for Youth 2012. Geneva: ILO. 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/ groups/public/…dgreports/…dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_180976.pdf (accessed 26.01. 2022)
15. Ivanov S.F. Birth rate decline in the countries of the South: politics around politics (In Russ.). Economic Journal of the Higher School of Economics. 2011. № 4, рp. 565–585.
16. Ivanov S.F. Demographic transition in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of the Institute for African Studies (In Russ.). 2019. № 1, рp. 99–114.
17. Ivanov S.F. Determinants and consequences of population trends in Sub-Saharan Africa (In Russ.). Journal of the Institute for African Studies. 2020. № 4, рp. 55–76.
18. Klüsener S. et al. Spatial and social distance at the onset of the fertility transition: Sweden, 1880–1900. Demography. 2019. Vol. 56. № 1, рp. 169–199.
19. Meskoub M. Population ageing and inter-generational relation in the MENA: what role for social policy? Population Horizons. 2017. Vol. 14. № 2, рp. 1–11.
20. Mirkin B. Arab Spring: Demographies in a region in transition. New York, UNDP. 2013. 34 p., р. 15.
21. Pourreza A. et al. Contributing factors to the total fertility rate declining trend in the Middle East and North Africa: a systemic review. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. March 2021. Vol. 40. № 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41043-021-00239-w (accessed 19.01.2022)
22. Rashad H., Osman M., Roudi-Fahimi F. Marriage in the Arab World. MENA Policy Brief. Washington D.C.: Population Reference Bureau. September 2005.
23. Retherford R.D., Palmore J.A. Diffusion processes affecting fertility regulation. Determinants of Fertility in Developing Countries. 1983. Vol. 2 (Ed. R.A. Bulatao, R.D. Lee). New York. Acade-mic Press, Рp. 295–339.
24. Roudi-Fahimi F., Mederios M. Challenges and Opportunities. The Population of the Middle East and North Africa. New York, Population Reference Bureau. 2007.
25. Tabutin D., Schoumaker B. The demography of the Arab World and the Middle East from the 1950s to the 2000s: A survey of changes and a statistical assessment. Population. 2005. Vol. 60. № 5/6, рp. 505–615.
26. United Nations Development Programme. 2010. Third Arab Human Development Report. 2010. 51 p.
27. United Nations. World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision on-line database. New York, United Nations. 2011. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/unpp/panel_indicaters.htm (accessed 11.01.2022)
28. Wong H. et al. Global age-sex-specific fertility, mortality, healthy life expectancy (HALE), and population estimates in 204 countries and territories, 1950–2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020. Vol. 396. № 10258. Pp. 1160–1203. https://doi.org/10.1016/s014-0-6736(20)30977-6 (accessed 03.02.2022)
29. World Bank. Trade Integration in the Middle East and North Africa. New York, World Bank. 2013. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/MENAEXT/… (accessed 27.01. 2022)
30. World Population Prospects: The 2022 Revision. United Nations. New York, 2022. www.population.un.org/ wpp/Publications/ (accessed 08.02.2022)
31. World Population Prospects 2022. Summary of Results. New York, UN DESA. 2022. 52 p. UN/ DESA/POP/2022/TR/NO.3.
32. Zinkina Yu.V. Long-tern dynamics of fertility in the countries of Tropical Africa: patterns, trends and prospects (In Russ.). Moscow, Publishing House “Delo” RANH and GS. 2015. 274 p.