Unevenness of the Economic Development of the Arabic States as One of the Premises of the Conflicts in the Afro-Asian Region


Vladilen Gusarov


The socio-economic reasons of conflicts are numerous. Their premises are very different factors of the economic history of the arabic states. Among most important is the unevenness of their economic development both in the colonial and in the postcolonial periods.

Until gaining independence the arabic states were on the different levels of the socio-economic development. One may explain this by many reasons of the political, geographic and socio-economic character. The most important among them are the level of development of the capitalism, the geographic proximity of the arabic states to Europe and generally to their metropolises, the military-strategic situation, the presence of the colonies of migrants from metropolises and of the national communities from other European states, the discovery of rich resources of raw materials, the influence of of the neighbouring countries’s cultures on the process of their historic and socio-economic development.

As a result of long historical influence of these and many others factors different arabic countries achieved independence, but all of them were backward agrarian countries. Therefore the main differences among them manifested themselves in the degree of the backwardness

Not a single arabic country had the developed manufacturing industry, which production would go to export. Some mining and oil enterprises, which were present in some of them belonged mainly to the foreign capital and practically were the heterogeneous formation in the extremely backward agrarian economy with undeveloped production forces. Only in some of these countries the light and food industry was functioning. In other branches of economy small and smallest enterprises predominated, based on personal labour of their owners and their families, who used primitive means of production.

The poor possibilities of competition, the low efficiency of production mechanisms, the extreme unevenness of available natural potentials, financial and human resources, in particular skilled labour, as well as the impact of the interstate and military conflicts, the processes of globalization and growth rates of the economic development led the arabic countries to in the beginning of the new century to very different and even polar results, the main indicator of which is the gross domestic product per capita.

The historic experience demonstrates, that the more is the gross domestic product of any country, the bigger state apparatus, including military forces, it may afford and use it actively for its internal as well as foreign policy. For example, arabic state Qatar in 2011 used its military forces for the overthrow of the Kaddafi regime, what led Libya to the state of collapse, and turned it to a conglomerate of several quasi-states, which are connected together by the necessity to produce and to sell oil.

If to take the whole period, more than half of the century, of the existence of the arabic countries as independent states , one would hardly find any years during which the peace persisted in their territories. There have been constant military-political conflicts in different parts of the arabic world, as well as between the arabic countries and their afro-asiatic neighbours.


unevenness, economic development, conflicts, growth rates, gross domestic product




Fituni L.L., Abramova I.O. Negosudarstvennyye i kvazigosudarstvennyye aktory Bol’shogo Blizhnego Vostoka i problema «evrodzhikhadizma» yevropeyskoye litso ekstremistskoy ugrozy (Non-state and quasi-state actors of the Greater Middle East and the problem of “Eurojihadism”: European face of an extremist threat. Aziya i Afrika segodnya. (Asia and Africa today). 2015, № 11, pp. 2-11.
Gusarov V.I. Ekonomicheskaya nezavisimost’ arabskix stran. Predposylki i usloviya dostizheniya (The economic independence of the arabic states. The premises and conditions of its achievement) Moscow, 1993, 270 p.
Gusarov V.I. Severnaya Afrika: polveka nezavisimogo razvitiya (The northern Africa; the half of the century of the independent development), Moscow, 2008, 152 p.
Handbook of international trade and development statistics. New York. Geneva 1979, 1995,1997, 2002, 2013. ILO Yearbook 1967. Geneva.1970.
IMF: World Economic Outlook, Washington, April, 2018
Isaev V.A., Filonic A.O. Katar . Tri stolpa rosta (Qatar. Three pillars of growth). Moscow, 2015, 320 p.
Problems of contemporary Africa. Rome. 1984, 120 р.
Shaaban S. Tunis: put’ k politicheskomu plyuralizmu, kurs prezidenta Zina al-Abidina Ben Ali (Tunisia: the way toward the political pluralismus, the course of the president Zin al-Abidin Ben Ali) Moscow, 1996, 160 p.
Sharipov U.Z. II desyatiletie XXI veka – novaya «bol`shaya krov’» na Blizhnem Vostoke (The second decade of the 21st century-new «big blood» of the Near East) Moscow, 2017, 218 p.