The article explores the conceptual approaches adopted by China, the U.S. and some European nations, notably Germany and France, as the basis for their African policies. The analysis offers a comprehensive comparison, accounting for the main ideas on Africa as contained in the new edition of Russia’s Foreign Policy Concept. Arguably, the strategies contain divergent visions of the geographic scope as well as the conceptual framework for engaging Africa. Besides, the approaches differ when assessing the role other actors have to play in Africa, ranging from open competition up to a certain readiness for partnerships in specific issue areas. For each case, the author discusses its own specifics.
Africa, strategies, foreign policy concept, approaches, Russia, United States, China, EU, Germany, France
1. Abramova I.O., Fituni L.L. New Strategy of Russia in African Direction. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 2020, vol. 90, № 11, рр. 1067‒1076.
2. Abramova I.O., Fituni L.L. Russia’s New Strategy in the African Direction. World Eсonomy and International Relations, 2021, vol. 65, № 12, pp. 68‒78.
3. Abramova, I.O., Fituni, L.L. Ways to Increase the Efficiency of Russia’s African Strategy under the Crisis of the Existing World Order. Her. Russ. Acad. Sci. 92, рр. 569–579 (2022).
4. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 30.11.2016 № 640 “Authorization of the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation” (in Russian). http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/ Document/View/0001201612010045 (accessed 31.05.2023)
5. Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated 31.03.2023 № 229 “Authorization of the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation” (in Russian). http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/ Document/View/0001202303310007 (accessed 31.05.2023)
6. Filippov V.R. The African Policy of France in 2017-2023. Asia and Africa today. 2023, № 5, р. 65‒73.
7. Fituni L.L. Designs of the Four: Comparing African Strategies of Russia, China, US, and EU against Backdrop of the (Re)Emerging Bipolarity. Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development. 2021, р. 77‒94.