Family planning programs are one of the most important components of population policy. The article examines the determining and accompanying factors of reproductive behavior in the recent historical retrospective of the North African region, starting from the middle of the 20th century.
Since the second half of the last century, families in the Arab world have been undergoing transformation as new models of family and marriage relations appear in the result of the gradual acceleration of socio-economic development. From the 1970s, more and more governments in the region began to pursue a demographic policy against uncontrolled population growth, which is a powerful brake on economic dynamics. The main influence on the reduction in the birth rate was exerted by five factors – the level of the healthcare system, economic, social, political, and cultural aspects.
The reduction in the birth rate can begin only after a decrease in mortality, primarily infant and child. The use of contraceptives, as a method of deliberate birth control, is also an important component.
The processes of urbanization and migration are considered significant factors influencing fertility rates. Raising the age of marriage, increasing life expectancy have an impact on reducing the size of the family. In any case, the decline in the birth rate entails the aging of the population. The richer the country, the higher the percentage of older people is in its population. According to experts, the governments should take on the task of providing families and aging generation with social security, improving the provision of pensions and benefits, especially for women, and actively promoting the expansion of women’s education and emancipation, which would be beneficial for the development of society and the state.
North African region, demographic policy, reproductive behavior, population aging, intergenerational support
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