The foundations of political activity were laid in Equatorial Guinea during the colonial era. At that time, several ethnic-based parties were active, advocating the complete separation of the island of Fernando Po from the continental province of Rio Muni. After decolonization in 1968, power was effectively monopolized by the Fang people.
The country was faced with the need to solve problems that could be solved by joint efforts of representatives of various political parties and social movements: improving the living standards of the population, creating health and education systems, economic and infrastructural development. However, in the political system of Equatorial Guinea, one-party rule in the form of the Democratic Party is firmly entrenched.
In 1975, the population faced mass repressions, and the state administration as a system almost disappeared. Not only oppositionists were physically destroyed, but also people who were far from politics.
In 1991, under pressure from the United Nations, Spain, and the United States, and under threat of suspension of economic aid, several opposition movements were allowed to operate in Equatorial Guinea. But the most active oppositionists ended up in prison. Currently, the role of the opposition in the political life of the country is small, the Democratic Party has dominated the country’s parliament for many years. The political system of Equatorial Guinea does not provide for the existence of an independent State structure whose function is to organize elections. The head of the National Election Commission is the country’s interior minister and one of the main figures in the ruling Democratic Party. For decades, the opposition’s discontent with the policies of the ruling party has been based not only on restrictions on the activities of the opposition itself, but also on the low standard of living of the population. In addition, the regime of one-party rule creates a negative image of the country in the international arena. Foreign donors often cite this former Spanish colony as a glaring example of social inequality.
Equatorial Guinea, political parties, struggle for power, state structure, opposition, elections
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